Updates:  2019/01/01 Org. Retail Crime-Albq Jrnl-2017/11/02;  (05/29/2018 Gangs & Religion-Catholic/LA Times Gangs & Their God; 08/04/2017 New Mexican Mafia corrections/az; 08/02/2017 MSN on MS-13; 07/01/2017; 06/30/2017; 05/28/2017; 05/21/2017; 05/20/2017; 03/17/2017 CARTELS AND GANGS And New Mexico Drug Issues Brief Links (Cartels)     Links     Drugs/New Mexico     Search/Seizure Issues     Gangs & Religion-Catholic Gangs & Occult     Dept. Justice-Org. Crime Cases     Sinaloa      MS-13 Gangs     Jalisco     La Santa Muerte Systems approach      Retail Organized Crime See also: Cybercrime Systems Approach on Cartels/Mexico Mexico’s Cartel Problem: A Systems Thinking Perspective Sibel McGee, Ph.D., Michael Joel, Robert Edson Applied Systems Thinking Institute, Analytic Services, Inc.,  2900 S Quincy Street, Suite 800, Arlington, VA 22206 Sibel.McGee@anser.org; Michael.Joel@anser.org; Robert.Edson@anser.or We argue that the efforts that rely purely on law enforcement measures will fail to produce lasting change unless they are coupled with high leverage strategies that address the root causes of illicit activities in Mexico. Biography : Sibel McGee, Ph.D. is a Senior Analyst at the Applied Systems Thinking (ASysT) Institute of Analytic Services Inc., Arlington, VA, providing systems and research analysis for various federal departments and agencies to include Department of Homeland Security and Defense. She is also an adjunct Professor at the University of Maryland University College. Dr. McGee holds an MS in International Relations from Middle East Technical University, Turkey, an MA in European Studies from University of Bonn, Germany, and a Ph.D. in Political Science from Texas A&M University.  Michael Joel is currently an analyst with the Marine Corps Intelligence Activity, Quantico, VA.  Mr. Joel was previously a Senior Associate Analyst at the Applied Systems Thinking (ASysT) Institute of Analytic Services Inc., Arlington, VA.  He holds a BA in History and an MA in Public Policy/National Security Policy from George Mason University. Robert Edson is Vice President for Enterprise Development at Analytic Services Inc., and Director of the Applied Systems Thinking Institute (ASysT). In his role as Director of ASysT, he leads an institute whose mission is to advance the application of systems thinking principles in the fields of national security and homeland security. He has over 25 years of experience in dealing with complex systems issues and systems thinking. Mr. Edson is an Adjunct Professor at Stevens Institute of Technology and has a BS in Biology from George Mason University and a MS in Physical Oceanography and Meteorology from the Naval Postgraduate School.  Search and Seizure Issues https://thinkprogress.org/new-mexico-is-the-second-state-to-ban-police-from-seizing-innocent-peoples-property- d9b947c1399#.ku6u8e181 http://www.wildcat.arizona.edu/article/2015/04/no-excuses-for-unwarranted-search-seizure-drug-dogs Gangs and The Occult http://www.policemag.com/blog/gangs/story/2008/03/criminal-gangs-and-the-occult.aspx Gangs and Religion - Catholic LA Times: Gangs and Their God. Margaret Ramirez (1999/05/08) http://articles.latimes.com/1999/may/08/local/me-35168 Many Latino gang members invoke the protection of Jesus or Mary in the form of tattoos and graffiti. Some observers say the practice is a genuine attempt to connect with a spiritual heritage. Department of Justice - Criminal Division - Organized Crime and Gang Section - Cases https://www.justice.gov/criminal-ocgs/ocgs-press-room/2017 MS-13 Gangs http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/crime/fighting-ms-13-officials-detail-best-ways-to-combat-the-violent-gang/ar- AApjepI?li=BBmkt5R&ocid=spartandhp Sinaloa Cartel http://www.businessinsider.com/fast-and-furious-guns-sinaloa-cartel-2012-8 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/ismael-el-mayo-zambada-sinaloa_us_56a0becce4b0404eb8f05313 Jalisco New Generation Cartel http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/03/26/fighting-mexico-s-new-super-cartel.html La Santa Muerte http://www.huffingtonpost.com/latina-magazine/7-things-to-know-about-la_b_8385476.html Arizona - New Mexican Mafia  - the name should not be confused with New Mexico, but is from orig. Mexican Mafia https://corrections.az.gov/new-mexican-mafia-0 Consider Reading: -Insight Crime, insightcrime.org   Latin American cartels, some American material- -Robert J. Bunker (also seen in No to Sacrifices in Human Issues section on this website) expert on terrorism and cult behavior in cartels -Sylvia Longmire:  Cartel: The Coming Invasion of Mexico's Drug Wars (2011) -Ioan Grillo The Bloody Rise of Mexican Drug Cartels (2017) -George W. Grayson - The Los Zetas Drug Cartel - Sadism as an Instrument of Cartel Warfare in Mexico and Central America (2015) -Police Mag article on Criminal Gangs and the Occult:  http://www.policemag.com/blog/gangs/story/2008/03/criminal-gangs-and- the-occult.aspx Retail Org. Crime Alb Jrnl: (2017) Retailers face new threat: Organized crime. BY LORRAINE MIRABELLA / THE BALTIMORE SUN https://www.abqjournal.com/1086991/retailers-face-new-threat-organized-crime.html Organized theft has surpassed internal theft to become the leading cause of retail loss, said Robert Moraca, vice president of loss prevention for the National Retail Federation. Analysts say the increase has been fueled by the opioid epidemic and by the growing understanding among criminals that theft can be quick, easy and profitable. In a well choreographed assault, Moraca says, thieves can clear shelves of thousands of dollars’ worth of goods in minutes. “And that’s happening in multiples,” he says. “It’s not just a group that gets together and wants to steal. These are groups that already exist for criminal purposes,” such as drug trafficking and human trafficking. “These are hardened criminals, and they get into organized retail crime because it’s extremely profitable.”… “The individuals who are doing the shoplifting have become extremely dangerous, much more than anyone would think of a petty shoplifter doing,” spokesman Stephen Holmes says. He says assaults on security guards and asset protection personnel have become common. “It can be the slightest thing that triggers that act of violence,” he says. “I just don’t think the average person realizes what’s going on.” https://www.abqjournal.com/1086991/retailers-face-new-threat-organized-crime.html Cartels A, B, C Borderland Beat:  Cartel Violence, Cash Infiltrating U.S. (05/2011) http://www.borderlandbeat.com/2011/05/cartel-violence-cash-infiltrating-us.html Business Insider: Fast and Furious Guns Sinaloa Cartel (2012) http://www.businessinsider.com/fast-and-furious-guns-sinaloa-cartel-2012-8 University of Chicago: Irving Spergel Leading Scholar Gangs 1924-2010. By William Harms (12/08/2010) https://news.uchicago.edu/article/2010/12/08/irving-spergel-leading-scholar-gangs-1924-2010 CNN:   On the border: Guns, drugs -- and a betrayal of trust.  Cartels Columbus, New Mexico By Michael Martinez.  (06/102012) http://www.cnn.com/2012/06/10/us/cartels-columbus-new-mexico/ Whitey Bulger six surprising facts (09/17/2014) http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/17/justice/whitey-bulger-six-things/index.html CNS News: Effort Combat Drug Cartels Operating New Mexico Spurs Racial Profiling Complaints. By Susan Jones (07/12/2012) http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/effort-combat-drug-cartels-operating-new-mexico-spurs-racial-profiling-complaints D, E, F The Daily Beast: Jeremy Kryt http://www.thedailybeast.com/author/jeremy-kryt Fighting Mexico’s New Super Cartel. By Jeremy Kryt (03/26/2016) The Jalisco New Generation Cartel is known for its hyper-aggressive, paramilitary tactics—now it’s bringing the terror to America’s doorstep. http://www.thedailybeast.com/author/jeremy-kryt http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/03/26/fighting-mexico-s-new-super-cartel.html Cartel Watch - Why the Military Will Never Beat Mexico's Cartels. By Jeremy Kryt (04/02/2016) As the murder rate in Mexico rises yet again, it’s time to admit current policies aren’t working—and start looking for new solutions. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/04/02/will-mexico-s-surreal-drug-war-ever-end DEA dot gov: Synthetic Drugs Excerpt:  (2012) more than five million packets of finished designer synthetic drugs were seized across the country in the first-ever nationwide law enforcement action against the synthetic designer drug industry responsible for the production and sale of synthetic drugs that are often marketed as bath salts, Spice, incense, or plant food https://www.dea.gov/divisions/elp/2012/elpaso073012p.html FBI: Organized Crime: History of La Cosa Nostra https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/organized-crime/history-of-la-cosa-nostra G-K Huffington Post:  7 Things to Know About La Santa Muerte.  By Latina Magazine (10/26/2015 05:30 pm ET | Updated Oct 25, 2016) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/latina-magazine/7-things-to-know-about-la_b_8385476.html Meet The Man Who Runs The Sinaloa Cartel... With Or Without ‘El Chapo’; Unlike “El Chapo,” Ismael “El Mayo” Zambada hasn’t spent years in prison. By Roque Planas (01/21/2016) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/ismael-el-mayo-zambada-sinaloa_us_56a0becce4b0404eb8f05313 Insight Crime: Corrupt Mexico police concentrated in ten [Mexican] states http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/corrupt-mexico-police-concentrated-in-ten-states L, M, N Judith Miller: Mexicanization American Law Enforcement http://www.judithmiller.com/6482/mexicanization-american-law-enforcement LA Times: ATF Fast Furious http://www.latimes.com/nation/atf-fast-furious-sg-storygallery.html ATF Guns http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-atf-guns-20111009-story.html#axzz2qP3R9IU4 U.S. warns citizens about traveling to Mexico's Cancun and Los Cabos as violence surges. By Kate Linthicum (08/22/2017) http://www.latimes.com/world/mexico-americas/la-fg-mexico-cancun-warning-20170822-story.html LAPD authors: Dunn http://www.lapdauthors.com/dunn.html MSN: Fighting MS 13 Officials Detail Best Ways to Combat the Violent Gang. By Kaitlyn Schallhorn (08/02/2017) http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/crime/fighting-ms-13-officials-detail-best-ways-to-combat-the-violent-gang/ar- AApjepI?li=BBmkt5R&ocid=spartandhp National Review: Fast Furious = Obamas First Scandal. By Ian Tuttle (01/21/2016) http://www.nationalreview.com/article/430153/fast-furious-obamas-first-scandal NPR: Prison gang reach increasingly extends into streets (2013) http://www.npr.org/2013/04/02/176035798/experts-prison-gang-reach-increasingly-extends-into-streets O, P, Q, R Police Mag:Criminal Gangs and the Occult http://www.policemag.com/blog/gangs/story/2008/03/criminal-gangs-and-the-occult.aspx Of all the criminal groups that I have worked over the more than three decades in law enforcement, the most credible attempts on my life have come from these occult true believers.Be aware of these trends and beliefs. Gang members who take the occult seriously can be truly dangerous. http://www.policemag.com/blog/gangs/story/2008/03/criminal-gangs-and-the-occult.aspx S, T, U Slate: “A Unique Death Cult” How the Romanian Iron Guard blended nationalistic violence with Christian martyrdom to spread a  singularly morbid fascist movement. By Stanley G. Payne (02/21/2017) See photo in article with heading: Corneliu Zelea Codreanu and members of the Legion of the Archangel Michael (also known as the Iron Guard) in Bucharest, Romania, in 1937. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/fascism/2017/02/romania_s_unusually_morbid_fascist_movement_blende d_nationalistic_violence.html Note: although this entry is not actually “cartel” material, since it connected to the 1930s, I feel there is applicability to current times in those cases where there is a mix of religiosity and governmental control systems. Tech Dirt: DEA loses big drug case thanks to illegal wiretap warrants prosecutor calls procedural errors https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20151214/08492533071/dea-loses-big-drug-case-thanks-to-illegal-wiretap-warrants- prosecutor-calls-procedural-errors.shtml UCLA, Newsroom:  Jorja Leap Jumped In book (03/08/2012) http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/jorja-leap-jumped-in-book-230195 V, W, X, Y, Z Vice:  Mexico’s efforts to tackle police corruption are failing. By Paul Imison.  (03/21/2016)   https://news.vice.com/article/mexicos-efforts-to-tackle-police-corruption-are-failing The Mexican-Mormon War Part I (video clip) https://www.vice.com/en_au/article/the-mexican-mormon-war-part-1 Washington Post: House Democrats say Phoenix ATF to blame in fast and furious. By Sari Horwitz (01/31/2012) Excerpt: Federal agents based in Phoenix, not officials at Justice Department headquarters in Washington, were responsible for the controversial tactics used in the gun operation known as “Fast and Furious,” Democrats on the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee said in a report released Tuesday. A year after it became known that the operation relied on a tactic known as gun walking, the 89-page report called Fast and Furious “reckless and fatally flawed.” It puts the blame squarely on the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. It also concludes that the strategy began as early as 2006. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/house-democrats-say-phoenix-atf-to-blame-in-fast-and-furious- fiasco/2012/01/31/gIQAUQ9HfQ_story.html?utm_term=.92b235cb8ae8 In Mexico’s Nueva Laredo, Drug Cartels dictate media coverage. By William Booth (08/01/2010) http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/01/AR2010080103481.html Excerpt:  Two weeks ago, Mexican soldiers clashed here with drug cartel gangsters in running gun battles that lasted five hours. The outlaws hijacked vehicles, including a bus, for use as barricades and battering rams. Terrified residents scrambled for safety. At least a dozen people were killed, including bystanders. Children were wounded in the crossfire.  Not a single word about it appeared in the local news media.  Nuevo Laredo has three television news channels, four daily newspapers and at least five radio stations that broadcast news, but every outlet ignored the biggest story of the year. Nuevo Laredo is not an isolated village but the busiest city along the U.S.-Mexico border, a vital U.S. trade partner with a population of 360,000, professional sports teams, universities and an international airport.  Fearing for their lives and the safety of their families, journalists are adhering to a near-complete news blackout, under strict orders of drug smuggling organizations and their enforcers, who dictate -- via daily telephone calls, e-mails and news releases -- what can and cannot be printed or aired.  "We are under their complete control," said a veteran reporter, who spoke on the condition of anonymity. Editors and managers of news organizations who agreed to speak with The Washington Post insisted that the interviews take place away from their offices, at back tables in empty bars. "The cartels have eyes and ears inside our company," one editor said. BOOKS - CARTELS By Title A, B, C Blood Sacrifices: Violent Non-State Actors and Dark Magico (2016) By Robert J. Bunker Excerpt from Amazon:  The acknowledgment that blood sacrifice, particularly human sacrifice, actively occurs in the 21st century is a pivotal triumph in scholarly research. Twenty years ago, this book could not have been published. In most universities, think tanks, and government research facilities, characterizing any type of murder as sacrificial was viewed at best as a secondary motive and at worst as junk science. - Dr. Dawn Perlmutter" Cartel: The Coming Invasion of Mexico's Drug Wars (2011) By Sylvia Longmire  Excerpt from Amazon: Having followed Mexico's cartels for years, border security expert Sylvia Longmire takes us deep into the heart of their world to witness a dangerous underground that will do whatever it takes to deliver drugs to a willing audience of American consumers. The cartels have grown increasingly bold in recent years, building submarines to move up the coast of Central America and digging elaborate tunnels that both move drugs north and carry cash and U.S. high- powered assault weapons back to fuel the drug war. Channeling her long experience working on border issues, Longmire brings to life the very real threat of Mexican cartels operating not just along the southwest border, but deep inside every corner of the United States. She also offers real solutions to the critical problems facing Mexico and the United States, including programs to deter youth in Mexico from joining the cartels and changing drug laws on both sides of the border. D, E, F El Narco: The Bloody Rise of Mexican Drug Cartels (2017) By Ioan Grillo Excerpt from Amazon:  'War' is no exaggeration in discussing the bloodshed that has terrorized Mexico in the past decades. As rival cartels battle for control of a billion-dollar drug trade, the body count- 23,000 dead in five years - and sheer horror beggar the imagination of journalistic witnesses. Cartel gunmen have shot up schools and rehabilitation centers, and murdered the entire families of those who defy them. Reformers and law enforcement officials have been gunned down within hours of taking office. Headless corpses are dumped on streets to intimidate rivals, and severed heads are rolled onto dancefloors as messages to would-be opponents. And the war is creeping northward. El Narco is the story of the ultraviolent criminal organizations that have turned huge areas of Mexico into a combat zone. It is a piercing portrait of a drug trade that turns ordinary men into mass murderers, as well as a diagnosis of what drives the cartels and what gives them such power. Veteran Mexico correspondent Ioan Grillo traces the gangs from their origins as smugglers to their present status as criminal empires. The narco cartels are a threat to the Mexican government, and their violence has now reached as far as North Carolina. El Narco is required reading for anyone concerned about one of the most important news stories of the decade. G The Gangs of Los Angeles By William Dunn According to the book description, The Gangs of Los Angeles describes that “there is no gang turf more desperately unique than that hidden among the 464 square miles which make up the City of Los Angeles. It is a fragile place; both tantalizing and repulsive, where wild fires can scorch hill-top celebrity homes as easily as gang members decimate a housing project with automatic rifle fire.  The Gangs of Los Angeles is a classic, real life account of American crime. From the early Tomato Gangs of 1890's Boyle Heights to the modern Crips and Mara Salvatrucha, with side trips through an Irish Dogtown, the gang wars of "Happy Valley", Sleepy Lagoon and the yellow journalism of the Hearst Press, and a tragic murder at Sunset and Vine, Dunn recounts the events and notorious denizens that spawned LA's gang subculture.”  William Dunn said of The Gangs of Los Angeles, “This book is the culmination of five years I spent researching the history of LA's gang culture. I've been a gang cop (both in a CRASH unit and as a gang detective) in this city almost two decades, and I'd heard all the urban legends about the origins of the Crips, the Bloods, White Fence, MS-13, etc. Little of it made sense, and it seemed you could ask any two OG or Veteranos the same question about their gangs past and get two separate answers. So I wanted to know what the truth was, especially after other gang investigators in other states, now being hit with our gang members who were migrating from our town to their areas, were calling me and asking me not only what we'd done to fight the gang culture, but how did it all begin. They didn't want to make the same mistakes. So I went back, into the 50', the 40's, the 30's, even back to 1892 when it all begins, to see how it started, and what the city did to suppress the gang culture, both the stuff that worked, and the stuff that didn't.  For more information about gangs you can read my other book Boot: An L.A.P.D. Officer's Rookie Year which details my first year as a street cop in South Central during the Crip and Blood wars of 1990. I will also soon be publishing a book called "The Tequila Triangle" which is a history of Mexican Border drug cartels like The Gulf, Juarez, Tijuana, Sonora, etc. Cartels; as well as the "Sicario" (assassination) groups like the Sinaloan Cowboys, Zetas and Kaibiles; and how all these organizations have corrupted and influenced Los Angeles' gang and drug culture; and where these ties could be taking our country!” Gangs and Youth Subcultures: International Explorations.  By Kayleen M. Hazlehurst, Cameron Hazlehurst Gang Life: 10 of the toughest tell their stories (2014) by Mark Totten  Gringo Justice: Catholicism in American Culture By Alfredo Mirandé H, I, J Jumped In By jorja Leap K, L, M The Los Zetas Drug Cartel - Sadism as an Instrument of Cartel Warfare in Mexico and Central America (2015)   By George W. Grayson Excerpt from Amazon:The United States has diplomatic relations with 194 independent nations. Of these, none is more important to America than Mexico in terms of trade, investment, tourism, natural resources, migration, energy, and security. In recent years, narco-violence has afflicted our neighbor to the south—with more than 50,000 drugrelated murders since 2007 and some 26,000 men, women, and children missing. President Enrique Peña Nieto has tried to divert national attention from the bloodshed through reforms in energy, education, antihunger, health care, and other areas. Even though the death rate has declined since the chief executive took office on December 1, 2012, other crimes continue to plague his nation. Members of the business community report continual extortion demands; national oil company Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) suffers widespread theft of oil, gas, explosives, and solvents (with which to prepare methamphetamines); hundreds of Central American migrants have shown up in mass graves; and the public identifies the police with corruption and villainy. A common fear of the elite and growing middle class is kidnapping. In 2012, Mexico recorded 105,000 cases; in 2013, the country led the world in abductions, surpassing such volatile nations as Afghanistan, Colombia, and Iraq.  Los Zetas, who deserted from the army’s special forces in the late-1990s, not only traffic in drugs, murder, kidnap, and raid PEMEX installations, but also involve themselves in extortion, human smuggling, torture, money laundering, prostitution, arson, prison breakouts, murder for hire, and other felonies. While consisting of only a few hundred hard core members, these paramilitaries have gained a reputation for the sadistic treatment of foes and friends—a legacy of their two top leaders, Heriberto “The Executioner” Lazcano Lazcano and Miguel Ángel “El 40” Treviño Morales, who thrived on beheadings, castrations, “stewing” their prey in gasoline-filled vats, and other heinous acts. They make sophisticated use of social media and public hangings to display their savagery and cow adversaries.  The reputation for the unspeakable infliction of pain has enabled these desperados to commit atrocities in a score of Mexican states, even as they expend their presence, often in league with local gangs and crime families, in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and other nations of the Americas. From their bastion in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, across the border from Laredo, Texas, they also acquire weapons, entrée to legal businesses, and teenage recruits. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the fiends have contracted with such outfits as the Texas Mexican Mafia prison gang, the Houston’s Tango Blast, and the McAllen, Texas-based Los Piojos to collect debts, acquire vehicles, carry out hits, and sign up thugs to fight their foes in the Matamoros-centered Gulf Cartel for which Los Zetas originally served as a Praetorian Guard.  Washington policymakers, who overwhelmingly concentrate on Asia and the Mideast, would be well advised to focus on the acute dangers that lie principally south of the Rio Grande, but whose deadly avatars are spilling into our nation. Muslim Mafia: Inside the Secret Underworld that's Conspiring to Islamize America (2009) P. David Gaubatz   Paul Sperry  N, O, P Nasty, Brutish and Short: The Lives of Gang Members in Canada by Mark Totten Q, R, S, T Reducing Youth Gang Violence (2007) By Irving Spergel Racketville, Slumtown, Haulburg: An Exploratory Study of Delinquent Subcultures (1964), a groundbreaking book based on his Ph.D. dissertation. By Irving Spergel U, V, W, Z Youth Gangs and Community Intervention: Research, Practice and Evidence (2010) Edited by Robert Chaskin, associate professor at SSA.  Note:  Spergel recently contributed a chapter to Youth Gangs and Community Intervention: Research, Practice and Evidence, edited by Robert Chaskin, associate professor at SSA. The book, published this year, was created from a series of papers by leading colleagues and gang researchers that were presented at a 2006 conference honoring Spergel’s retirement. (2010, from https://news.uchicago.edu/article/2010/12/08/irving- spergel-leading-scholar-gangs-1924-2010) The Youth Gang Problem: A Community Approach (1995) By Irving Spergel Excerpt from https://news.uchicago.edu/article/2010/12/08/irving-spergel-leading-scholar-gangs-1924-2010:    A seminal work that described a model — now commonly referred to as the Spergel model — for intervention that has been adopted by the U.S. Department of Justice to combat gang violence around the country.  Spergel said of the model: “This project goes beyond traditional programs, because it facilitates communication and coordinates efforts by all the groups who want to reach out to youth who are seriously at risk of joining gangs or who are violent gang members. It provides opportunities for both adolescents and young adults in gangs to change their lives. All gang kids are not the same, and this model recognizes that and provides different solutions for different problems.”  The model calls for a coordinated effort against gangs characterized by community organization and neighborhood mobilization; social intervention, including jobs, job training and education; suppression, including arrest, incarceration and supervision; and organizational development and change.  The U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention demonstrated and evaluated the model in Bloomington, Ill.; Mesa and Tucson, Ariz.; Riverside, Calif.; and San Antonio, Texas from 1992 to 1999, proving through quasi-experimental evaluations that the model was successful when correctly implemented.  In the years since, the model has been successfully implemented at five additional test sites and has been adopted by more than 20 cities around the country. The model is the central component of the National Gang Center, an OJJDP program that disseminates research on gangs and offers training and assistance to law enforcement, social workers and communities. It was later renamed the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model.
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